Vol. 24 – Nos. 1-2 Double Issue (2015 ) The Jewish Community of Kalvarija
From time to time articles in Landsmen have provided information about various settlements in Suwalki Province. See Post 2 Vol. 5 – No. 4 (1995) The Jewish Community of Vilkovishki: Full Translation from Kagan’s Yiddish book at https://suwalkigermans.wordpress.com/2015/04/27/landsmen-1994-1995/
A few sentences reveal that in 1713 Jews were accepted into Christian guilds of tailors, furriers, locksmiths, etc. In 1897 there were 9378 Christians and 3581 Jews in Kalvarija. Kalvarija’s location was “very close to the German border.”
The reader may note the varied spellings of Kalwarja/Kalwarija, again showing the various ethnicities and governmental jurisdictions so common to the area.
Vol. 24 – Nos. 1-2 Double Issue (2015) Special Section on Kalwarja
No Jewish civil records exist “for the town of Kalwarja and for five of the other six towns in its district: Krasna, Lubowo, Ludwinowo, Simno, and Uromin. [Some records for Olita do exist.]” This article provides details of data extracts not previously published.
Author’s Note: RE: Ludwinowo (aka Ludwinow), one of the eight towns in Kalwarja County. It is pretty obvious to the followers of this blog that the emphasis has been on Wylkowiszki and Marijampole and other locations associated with my –at family. Two things have changed: (1) Recent research which will be discussed in upcoming 2016 blogs has me now looking at areas closer to Kalwarja. (2) A recent comment on this blog explained that the reader’s family was from Liudvinavas. The location south of Marijampole and name sounded a bit familiar to me. I checked my research and sure enough, I had written,” Anielinas/Anielin: birth of Henriete Auguste Hutop in 1851; birth of Fryderik Hutop in 1852; death of Wilhelmine geb. Stein Hutop in 1852; included on a list of places associated with Ludwinow, (now Liudvinavas, Lithuania) in the Polish Gazetteer, Slonik Geograficzny…..” So another new location was added to my known list of locations, thanks to a reader of this blog.
The typical organizational patterns of these “Special Section” articles appear here. The General History includes: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795); Prussian and French Rule (1795- 1814), Kingdom of Poland (1814-1918) and the Interwar Years.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-1795): Kalwarja was in the Trocki district in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Prussian and French Rule (1795- 1814): The 10 counties in the Bialystok Department are named. Two of the eight towns in Kalwarja County included Kalwarja and Wylkowiszki. Once again, this information is from The 1800 Prussian Inventory for Suwalk-Lomza Towns, with Historical Background, Data Extracts, and Analysis of the Data. See https://suwalkigermans.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/landsmen-2002/
Kingdom of Poland (1814-1918): Kalwarja and six other towns became one the seven districts of Suwalki Gubernia.
Interwar Years: Kalwarja District became part of independent Lithuania.
In the following discussion of Jewish History various sources come to light for Kalwarja.
Volume 4: no. 1. The Jewish Community of Kalwarja “is probably the most comprehensive treatment” of the Kalwarja Jewish community. See http://www.jewishgen.org/SuwalkLomza/Contents.html
1765 census: Includes three of the four Districts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Grodno, Kowno, and Trocki.)
1784 census: The text does not make clear whether this is an exclusively Jewish census or not.
The 1797-1800 Prussian Inventory, held by the U. S. Library of Congress, gives population and data for all 86 towns in the 10 counties of the ‘Bialystok Department’ [of ‘New East Prussia’]. See https://suwalkigermans.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/landsmen-2002/
The following kinds of information for the 8 towns in Kalwarja County—Kalwarja, Lubowo, Olita, Simno, Uromin, Wylkowiszki, Wierzbolowo, and Wisztyniec.
Town Name, County Name, # of Farm People, # of Jews, Total Population, % Jews, Artisans. Merchants, Town Owner, Military People
Other Landsmen articles of interest re: Kalwarja include
Vol. 1. Nos. 3-4: Data on Jewish Taxpayers 1821-1831 (includes Kalwarja)
Vol. 2. Nos. 2-3: Attitude of the Jewish Population of Augustow Province toward the January  Insurrection
Various articles on marriages and deaths in Suwalki vicinity towns: These records have not been referenced on this blog, but the Landsmen website contains a list of articles. http://www.jewishgen.org/SuwalkLomza/Contents.html
A list of towns in articles is at http://www.jewishgen.org/SuwalkLomza/Towns.html
The Kalwarja Kehila Links site on the JewishGen website at http://www.jewishgen.org/ has two articles of potential interest:
(1) a 20th century historical article on Kalwarja is located at http://kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/Kalvarija/Kalvarija.html#background.
(2) Material posted on the Vilkoviski Kehila Links site including photographs. (Use the search term “Kalvarija Synagogue Complex.”)
Vol. 24 – Nos. 1-2 Double Issue (2015) Hamburg Passengers from Kalwarja
In this appendix to the previous article the author explains that many Suwalki Jews identified “their nativity” more with the German than the Slavic culture because of the proximity of Suwalki Province to Prussia and despite the fact that the area has been annexed to Prussia only from 1795 to 1806 as New East Prussia. Various spellings– Calvari, Kalvari, and Kalwary (most frequent)—are listed.